Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Penn State Science
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Lorraine Santy

Lorraine Santy

Main Content

  • Associate Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
208 Althouse Laboratory
University Park, PA 16802
Phone: (814) 863-6813


Research Interests

Small GTPase regulation of epithelial cell motility

Graduate Programs


Research Summary

Epithelial cells form barriers that divide different compartments in the body.  Epithelial cells include the cells lining the intestine, lungs, kidney tubules, and milk ducts.  These cells are normally stationary but become migratory during processes such as the repair of tissue damage or the metastasis of epithelial tumors.  The Santy lab is interested in understanding the signals and processes that initiate migration in epithelial cells.  The development of motility involves large changes in the architecture and behavior of these cells.  We are focused on mapping out signals that remodel the cell and kick off epithelial migration.

Selected Publications

  • Hiester, K. G. and L. C. Santy (2013). “The Cytohesin Coiled-Coil Domain Interacts with Threonine 276 to Control Membrane Association.” PLoS ONE 8: e82084.

  • Attar, M. A. and L. C. Santy (2013). “The scaffolding protein GRASP/Tamalin directly binds to Dock180 as well as to cytohesins facilitating GTPase crosstalk in epithelial cell migration.” BMC Cell Biol 14: 9.

  • Leshner, M., S. Wang, C. Lewis, H. Zheng, X. A. Chen, L. Santy and Y. Wang (2012). PAD4 mediated histone hypercitrullination induces heterochromatin decondensation and chromatin unfolding to form neutrophil extracellular trap-like structures. Front. Immun.3:307.

  • Oh, S. J., and Santy, L. C. (2012) Phosphoinositide specificity determines which cytohesins regulate beta1 integrin recycling. J Cell Sci 125:3195-3201.

  • Attar, M. A., Salem, J. C., Pursel, H. S., and Santy, L. C. (2012) CNK3 and IPCEF1 produce a single protein that is required for HGF dependent Arf6 activation and migration. Exp Cell Res 318, 228-237.

  • White, D. T., McShea, K. M., Attar, M. A., and Santy, L. C. (2010) GRASP and IPCEF promote ARF-to-Rac signaling and cell migration by coordinating the association of ARNO/cytohesin 2 with Dock180. Mol Biol Cell 21, 562-571.

  • Oh, S. J., and Santy, L. C. (2010) Differential effects of cytohesins 2 and 3 on beta1 integrin recycling. J Biol Chem 285, 14610-14616.

  • Shmuel, M., Santy, L. C., Frank, S., Avrahami, D., Casanova, J. E., and Altschuler, Y. (2006) ARNO through its coiled-coil domain regulates endocytosis at the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells. J Biol Chem 281, 13300-13308.

  • Clarke, M., Ewart, M. A., Santy, L. C., Prekeris, R., and Gould, G. W. (2006) ACRP30 is secreted from 3T3-L1 adipocytes via a Rab11-dependent pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 342, 1361-1367.

  • Santy, L. C., Ravichandran, K. S., and Casanova, J. E. (2005) The DOCK180/Elmo complex couples ARNO-mediated Arf6 activation to the downstream activation of Rac1. Curr Biol 15, 1749-1754.

  • Martinu, L., Masuda-Robens, J. M., Robertson, S. E., Santy, L. C., Casanova, J. E., and Chou, M. M. (2004) The TBC (Tre-2/Bub2/Cdc16) domain protein TRE17 regulates plasma membrane-endosomal trafficking through activation of Arf6. Mol Cell Biol 24, 9752-9762.

  • Li, H. S., Shome, K., Rojas, R., Rizzo, M. A., Vasudevan, C., Fluharty, E., Santy, L. C., Casanova, J. E., and Romero, G. (2003) The guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARNO mediates the activation of ARF and phospholipase D by insulin. BMC Cell Biol 4, 13.

  • Santy, L. C. (2002) Characterization of a fast cycling ADP-ribosylation factor 6 mutant. J Biol Chem 277, 40185-40188

  • Santy, L. C., and Casanova, J. E. (2002) GTPase Signaling: Bridging the GAP between ARF and Rho. Curr Biol 12, R360-362.

  • Santy, L. C., and Casanova, J. E. (2001) Activation of ARF6 by ARNO stimulates epithelial cell migration through downstream activation of both Rac1 and phospholipase D. J Cell Biol 154, 599-610.

  • Santy, L. C., Frank, S. R., and Casanova, J. E. (2001) Expression and analysis of ARNO and ARNO mutants and their effects on ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)-mediated actin cytoskeletal rearrangements. Methods Enzymol 329, 256-26.

  • Santy, L. C., Frank, S. R., Hatfield, J. C., and Casanova, J. E. (1999) Regulation of ARNO nucleotide exchange by a PH domain electrostatic switch. Curr Biol 9, 1173-117.

  • Santy, L. C., and Guidotti, G. (1997) Expression of a single gene produces both forms of skeletal muscle cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. Am J Physiol 273, E1140-1148

  • Santy, L. C., and Guidotti, G. (1996) Reconstitution and characterization of two forms of cyclic nucleotide- gated channels from skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol 271, E1051-1060